The venturi tube is characterized by its tapered inlet and diverging outlet. This design greatly reduces head loss to the system when compared to an orifice plate, in fact, the venturi can handle 25 ~ 50 % more flow, than an orifice for comparable larger line size and lower head loss. The venturi is well suited for dirty fluids. There are no places for dirt to build up in the tube. Traditionally, the venturi tube has been used on low pressure gas flow, water and waste applications. Venturi tubes are generally constructed with the system of pressure taps which project radially into the pipe and feed into a common camber known as a piazometer ring. This multiple tap arrangement provides an average pressure reading over the entire circumference of the element. As a result, the need for a long pipe runs is eliminated. A general rule is that a venturi tube requires only half the upstream and downstream runs of an orifice plate. The discharge coefficient of the venturi is constant and predictable to ±1 % for pipe reynolds numbers greater than 100,000. Venturi elements are not as reliable at lower reynolds numbers (Figure 10). The venturi tube is a relatively high cost device. However, low pumping costs and reduced piping requirements can make it cost effective.
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